James De Koven was an American priest and professor who rose to prominence during the “ritualism” controversy of the 1870s; is it proper to allow candles on the altar? Do vestments promote idolatry? He shrugged off the trivial, external aspects but insisted that adoration of Christ’s Person in the Sacrament is “the inalienable privilege of every Christian and Catholic heart.” He was twice elected Bishop, but failed both times to receive consents from other dioceses, considered a terrible insult and repudiation. Since then the Anglo-Catholic position has almost entirely prevailed in the American Church, with candles and vestments everywhere. In 1979 the Holy Eucharist was restored as the principal form of worship.

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